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Endnotes

1 Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. 2011. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report. Retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control 

2 Ibid.

3 Maze of Injustice: The Failure to Protect Indigenous Women From Sexual Violence in the USA. Retrieved October 10, 2015

4 Martin, S., Neepa, R., Sotres-Alvarez, D., Kupper, L., Moracco, K., Dickens, P., Scandlin, D., & Gizlice, Z. 2006. “Physical and sexual assault of women with disabilities.” Violence Against Women, 12(9): 823–837.

5 Grant, A., Mottet, L., & Tanis, J. 2011. Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Retrieved October 10, 2015

6 Holloway, Mavis and Swan, Amanda.1993. A & E management of sexual assault. Nursing Standard 7:45.

7 O'Brien, C. 1996 (A). Sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program coordinator. Journal of Emergency Nursing 23:5.

8 Speck, Patricia M. and Aiken, Margaret M. 1995. 20 years of community nursing service: Memphis sexual assault resource center. TennesseeNurse.

9 Ledray, Linda E. and Chaignot, Mary Jane. 1980. Services to sexual assault victims in Hennepin County. Evaluation and Change (special issue).

10 Antognoli-Toland, Paula. 1985. "Comprehensive program for examination of sexual assault victims by nurses: A hospital-based project in Texas." Journal of Emergency Nursing. 11:3.

11 Ledray, L.E., & Simmelink, K. 1997. “Efficacy of SANE evidence collection: A Minnesota study.” Journal of Emergency Nursing, 23(1): 75–77.

12 Lenehan, G. 1991. “Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners: A SANE way to care for rape victims.” Journal of Emergency Nursing, 17(1).

13 Ledray, 1999. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Development and Operation Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime.

14 Fehler-Cabral, G., Campbell, R., & Patterson, D. 2011. “Adult sexual assault survivors’ experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs).” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18): 3618–3639.

15 Malloy, M. 1991. Relationship of Nurse-Identified Therapeutic Techniques to Client Satisfaction Reports in a Crisis Program [thesis]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

16 Campbell, R., Patterson, D., Adams, A., Diegel, R., & Coats, S. 2008. “A participatory evaluation project to measure SANE nursing practice and adult sexual assault patients’ psychological well-being.” Journal of Forensic Nursing, 4(1): 19–28.

17 Ericksen, J., Dudley, C., McIntosh, G., Ritch, L., Shumay, S., & Simpson, M. 2002. “Clients’ experiences with a specialized sexual assault service.” Journal of Emergency Nursing, 28(1): 86–90.

18 Fehler-Cabral, G., Campbell, R., & Patterson, D. 2011. “Adult sexual assault survivors’ experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs).” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18): 3618–3639.

19 Campbell, R., Townsend, S.M., Long, S.M., et al. 2006. “Responding to sexual assault victims’ medical and emotional needs: A national study of the services provided by SANE programs.” Research in Nursing & Health, 29(5): 384–398.

20 Ciancone, A., Wilson, C., Collette, R., & Gerson, L.W. 2000. “Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs in the United States.” Annals of Emergency Medicine, 35(4): 353–357.

21 Crandall, C., & Helitzer, D. 2013. Impact Evaluation of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

22 Amey, A.L., & Bishai, D. “Measuring the quality of medical care for women who experience sexual assault with data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.” Annals of Emergency Medicine, 39(6): 631–638.

23 Campbell, R., Wasco, S.M., Ahrens, C.E., Sefl, T., & Barnes, H.E. “Preventing the ‘second rape’: Rape survivors’ experiences with community service providers.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(12): 1239–1259.

24 Rovi, S., & Shimoni, N. “Prophylaxis provided to sexual assault victims seen at U.S. emergency departments.” Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 57(4): 204–207.

25 Ledray, L.E., & Simmelink, K. 1997. “Efficacy of SANE evidence collection: A Minnesota study.” Journal of Emergency Nursing, 23(1): 75–77.

26 Sievers, V., Murphy, S., & Miller, J. 2003. “Sexual assault evidence collection more accurate when completed by Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners: Colorado’s experience.” Journal of Emergency Nursing, 29(6): 511–514.

27 Ibid.

28 Campbell, R., Bybee, D., Townsend, S.M., Shawn, J., Karim, N., & Markowitz, J. 2014. “The impact of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs on criminal justice case outcomes: A multi-site replication study.” Violence Against Women, (20)5: 607–625.

29 Campbell, R., Patterson, D., & Bybee, D. “Prosecution of adult sexual assault cases: A longitudinal analysis of the impact of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner program.” Violence Against Women, 18(2): 223–244.

30 Crandall, C., & Helitzer, D. 2013. Impact Evaluation of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid.

34 Duffy, J.R. 2013. Quality Care in Nursing and Health Systems: Implications for Clinicians, Educators and Leaders. Second edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

35 Fehler-Cabral, G., Campbell, R., & Patterson, D. 2011. “Adult sexual assault survivors’ experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs).” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18): 3618–3639.

36 Duffy, J.R. 2013. Quality Care in Nursing and Health Systems: Implications for Clinicians, Educators and Leaders. Second edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

37 Fehler-Cabral, G., Campbell, R., & Patterson, D. 2011. “Adult sexual assault survivors’ experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs).” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18): 3618–3639.

38 Lombardo, B., & Eyre, C. 2011. “Compassion fatigue: A nurse’s primer.” The Online Journal of Nursing Issues, 16(1). Retrieved August 1, 2015

39 Minnesota Department of Public Safety. 2007. Critical Issues in Sexual Assault. Retrieved August 1, 2015 

40 Davis, R., Parks, L., & Cohen, L. 2006. Sexual Violence and the Spectrum of Prevention. National Sexual Violence Resource Center. Retrieved August 1, 2015

41 Duffy, J.R. 2013. Quality Care in Nursing and Health Systems: Implications for Clinicians, Educators and Leaders. Second edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

42 Institute of Medicine. 2001. Crossing the Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Retrieved August 1, 2015

43 Epstein, R., & Street, R. 2011. “The values and value of patient-centered care.” Annals of Family Medicine, 9(2): 100–103.

44 Hodas, Gordon. 2006. Responding to Childhood Trauma: The Promise and Practice of Trauma-Informed Care. Retrieved August 1, 2015

45 AHRQ Effective Health Care Program retrieved August 1, 2015

46 Felitti, V., Anda, R., et al. 1998. “Relationship of childhood abuse and the household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study.” American Journal of Preventive Health, 14: 245–258.

47 Classen, C.C., Palesh, O.G., & Aggarwal, R. 2005. “Sexual revictimization: A review of the empirical literature.” Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 6: 103–129.

48 Duffy, J.R. 2013. Quality Care in Nursing and Health Systems: Implications for Clinicians, Educators and Leaders. Second edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

49 Ibid.

50 Markowitz, J. 2009. Sustainability 101 Long Range Thinking for Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Program Managers. National Sexual Violence Resource Center 

51 Edinburgh, L., Saewyc, E., Levitt, C. 2008. Caring for young adolescent sexual abuse victims in a hospital-based children’s advocacy center. Child Abuse & Neglect 32: 1119–1126.

52 Girardet, R., Giacobbe, L., Bolton, K. et al. 2006. Unmet health care needs among children evaluated for sexual assault. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 160:70-73.

53 Campbell, R., Greeson, M., Karin, N., and Shaw, J. 2013. Evaluating the Work of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs in the Criminal Justice System: A Toolkit for Practitioners. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved December 3, 2015

54 Markowitz, J. 2008, February. Overview of Preliminary Applications, SANE Sustainability Project. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.

55 National Sexual Violence Resource Center. 2000. Confronting Sexual Violence: Sexual Assault in Indian Country.

56 Thoennes, Nancy & Tjaden, Patricia. 2000. Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

57 Amnesty International USA. 2006. Maze of Injustice: The Failure To Protect Indigenous Women From Sexual Violence in the USA - Report Summary.

58 Juraska, Ashley, et al. "Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land." Journal of forensic nursing 10.2 (2014): 92-97.

59 Population & Migration. Retrieved July 23, 2015

60 Rural Health Disparities. Retrieved July 23, 2015

61 Female Victims of Sexual Violence. 1994-2010. Retrieved July 23, 2015

62 Retrieved July 28, 2015, from The Health Care Costs of Domestic and Sexual Violence

63 Kellogg, N., Lamb, J., and Lukefahr, J. 2000. The Use of Telemedicine in Child Abuse Evaluations. Child Abuse and Neglect 24 (12) 1601-1612.

64 435 U.S.191

65 International Association of Forensic Nurses. 1996. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Standards of Practice.

66 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Health Information Privacy. Retrieved July 7, 2015

67 Performance Appraisal.

68 Retrieved March 2, 2016, from Planning and Writing an Annual Budget.

69 Rennison, C. 2002. Rape and Sexual Assault: Reporting to Police and Medical Attention, 1992-2000. Selected Findings, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics. 

70 Lonsway, K., Archambault, J., and Lisak, D. 2009. False Reports: Moving Beyond the Issues to Successfully Investigate and Prosecute Non-Stranger Sexual Assault. National Center for the Prosecution of Violence Against Women.

71 Pierce-Weeks, J., and Campbell, P. 2008. "The challenges forensic nurses face when their patient is comatose: addressing the needs of our most vulnerable patient population," Journal of Forensic Nursing 4(3): 104-110.

72 Carr, M.E., and Moettus, A.L. 2010. "Developing a policy for sexual assault examinations on incapacitated patients and patients unable to consent," Journal of Law Med Ethics 38(3): 647-653.

73 National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, page 43

74 National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, page 4

75 Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 6495.01, "Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

76 Ibid., 87.

77 Ibid., 89.

78 Basile, K.C., Black, M.C., Simon, T.R., Arias, R., Brener, N.D., Saltzman, L.E. 2006, "The association between self-reported lifetime history of forced sexual intercourse and recent health-risk behaviors: findings from the 2003 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey," Journal of Adolescent Health 39:752, e1–752.e7.

79 Briere, J., and Runtz, M. 1986. "Suicidal thoughts and behaviours in former sexual abuse victims," Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 18: 414–423.

80 Ullman, S.E., and Najdowski, C.J. 2009. "Correlates of serious suicidal ideation and attempts in female adult sexual assault survivors," Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39: 47–57.

81Briere, J., and Runtz, M. 1986. "Suicidal thoughts and behaviours in former sexual abuse victims," Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 18: 414–423.

82 Fergusson, D.M., L.I. Horwood, M.T. Lynskey, 1996, "Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of child sexual abuse," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34: 1365–74

83 Hardt, J., et al. 2008, "Childhood adversities and suicide attempts: a retrospective study," Journal of Family Violence, 23: 713–718

84 Martin, G., Bergen, H.A., Richardson, A.S., Roeger, L. Allison, S. 2004. "Sexual abuse and suicidality: gender differences in a large community sample of adolescents," Child Abuse and Neglect, 28: 491–50

85 Nelson, E.C., et al. 2002. "Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: results from a twin study," Archives of General Psychiatry, 59: 139–145

86 Peters, D.K., and Range, L.M. 1995. "Childhood sexual abuse and current suicidality in college women and men," Child Abuse and Neglect, 19: 335–341

87 Ullman, S.E., and Najdowski, C.J. 2009. "Correlates of serious suicidal ideation and attempts in female adult sexual assault survivors," Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39: 47–57

88 Calder, J, McVean, A and Yang, W. (2010). History of abuse and current suicidal ideation: Results of a population based survey, Journal of Family Violence 25: 205-214.

89 State v. Yount 182 P.3d 405 

90 State v. Yount 182 P.3d 405        

91 Martin, P.Y. (2005). Rape works: Victims, gender, and emotions in organization and community context. New York: Routledge.

92 Zajac, J.J. (2006). Report on the national needs assessment of Sexual Assault Response Teams. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.

93Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2013). Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): An empirical review of their effectiveness and challenges to successful implementation. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 14, 83-95.

94 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2015). Coordinated community efforts to respond to sexual assault: A national study of Sexual Assault Response Team implementation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2470-2487.

95 Department of Justice. (2013). A national protocol for sexual assault medical forensic examinations: Adult/adolescents (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

96 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2013). Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs): An empirical review of their effectiveness and challenges to successful implementation. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 14, 83-95

97 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2015). Coordinated community efforts to respond to sexual assault: A national study of Sexual Assault Response Team implementation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2470-2487.

98 Ibid.

99 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2015). Coordinated community efforts to respond to sexual assault: A national study of Sexual Assault Response Team implementation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2470-2487.

100 Ibid.

101 Zajac, J.J. (2006). Report on the national needs assessment of Sexual Assault Response Teams. Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center.

102 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2015). Coordinated community efforts to respond to sexual assault: A national study of Sexual Assault Response Team implementation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2470-2487.

103 Ibid.

104 Ibid.

105 Clairmont, B. (2008). Sexual Assault Response Teams. Resource guide for development of a sexual assault response team (SART) in tribal communities. Tribal Law and Policy Institute.

106 Greeson, M.R., & Campbell, R. (2015). Coordinated community efforts to respond to sexual assault: A national study of Sexual Assault Response Team implementation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(14), 2470-2487.

107 Ibid.

108 WHO Violence and Injury Prevention Guidelines Chapter 3

109 DuMont, J., Mcdonald, S., White, M., Turner, L., White, F., Kaplan, S., and Smith, T. 2014. "Client satisfaction with nursing-led sexual assault and domestic violence services in Ontario." Journal of Forensic Nursing 10(3) 122-34.

110 American Nurses Association. Peer Review Guidelines. Kansas City, MO: ANA; 1988.

111 Benner, P. (1982). "Issues in competency-based testing." Nursing Outlook, 30 (5), 303-309.

112 Alempijevic, Djordje, et al. "Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings." Torture 17.2 (2007): 117-21.

113 Williamson, Erin, N. M. Dutch, and H. J. Clawson. 2010. Evidence-based mental health treatment for victims of human trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

114 Ibid.

115 Campbell, Rebecca. Neurobiology of Sexual Assault - An NIJ Research for the Real World Seminar. December 3, 2012. 

116 Fehler-Cabral, G., Campbell, R., & Patterson, D. 2011. “Adult sexual assault survivors’ experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs).” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(18): 3618–3639.