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Resources: 4.5 Victim Populations

Minors and Adolescent Victims

Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Minors

Foreign National Child Victims

  • Assistance for Child Victims of Human Trafficking Fact Sheet This fact sheet provides a
    summary of services available to minor foreign national victims of trafficking.
  • Guide for State Courts in Cases Involving Unaccompanied Immigrant Children (2015) This guide, a collaboration from the Center for Public Policy Studies and the National Center for State Courts, aims to increase understanding of federal immigration laws and unaccompanied immigrant children in state courts. The guide focuses on Special Immigrant Juvenile Status as one of the options for unaccompanied minors.
  • Legal Best Practices Guide for the Protection of Child Victims of Human Trafficking (PDF 553KB) (2009) This document by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center provides an overview of information helpful to identify, assist, and effectively represent children who are victims of human trafficking, including a list of definitions, red flags, case illustrations, tips, laws, and other resources about working with child victims of human trafficking.
  • Requesting Assistance for Child Victims of Human Trafficking This document by the Department of Health and Human Services provides contact information on whom to call within the Office of Refugee Resettlement to request assistance with a child victim of human trafficking.
  • Children on the Run (2013) As the number of unaccompanied children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras increase, there has been an increasing demand for information on why the increase is occurring, under what conditions, and best practices for law enforcement and states to handle the surge. This report documents data, trends, and analyses best practices.

  • Flores Settlement Agreement of 1997 (PDF 3,892 KB) After two organizations filed class action suits against the Immigration and Naturalization Services for the detention, treatment, and release of unaccompanied immigrant children, the Flores Settlement imposed several obligations on the immigration authorities.

General Resources

Male Victims of Trafficking

  • And Boys Too [PDF] (2013) This is an ECPAT-USA discussion paper about the lack of recognition of the commercial sexual exploitation of boys in the United States.
  • “I Keep That Hush-Hush”: Male Survivors of sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure (2008) Male victims of childhood sexual abuse have not yet garnered the same amount of attention from researchers as their female counter parts.  In most cases, disclosure is critical to securing treatment and/or early intervention. Understanding men’s disclosure experiences, including any barriers that may have been encountered, is a vital step toward alleviating male survivors’ considerable, if often silent, suffering.

LGBTQ Victims

  • Breaking Barriers: Improving Services for Human trafficking Victims (2015) This Polaris report provides 10 action steps to increase an organization's capacity to serve LGBTQ victims.
  • Let's Talk About It! A Transgender Survivor's Guide to Accessing Therapy (2015) This guide provides information for transgender, gender non-confirming, and gender non-binary survivors of sexual violence. The document presents core information about trauma and its aftermath, and gives options for healing and self-help techniques for a wide range of needs, in addition to relevant resources.
  • Locked In: Interactions With the Criminal Justice and Child Welfare Systems for LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Who Engage in Survival Sex (2015) The Urban Institute report focuses on LGBTQ youth who are involved in the commercial sex market and their interactions with law enforcement, the criminal justice system, and the child welfare system.
  • Toward Equity (2015) The Equity Project’s training curriculum provides instructors with an outline for promoting competency and awareness in working with the LGBTQ community in the juvenile justice system. Lessons cover sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression.
  • Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM, and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex (2015) Published by the Urban Institute, this study looks at characteristics of youth who engage in survival sex in New York City. The study examines demographics, motivations, and factors such as peer or exploiter relationships. One section of the report examines youth relationships with exploiters and potential traffickers.
  • Building Relationships With Transgender Individuals (2014) This article, from the December issue of Police Chief Magazine, provides statistics on violence experienced by the transgender community and the need for building relationships with transgender advocacy and community groups in order to increase reporting and collaboration from transgender victims of crime. The article recommends strategies for building rapport.
  • LGBTQ Youths in the Juvenile Justice System: OJJDP’s brief summary of the LGBTQ risk factors for trafficking.
  • Serving LGBTQ Survivors of Violence This training offered by OVC TTAC provides victim advocates and allied professionals with knowledge and skills needed to effectively support and work with LGBTQ-identified people, communities, and survivors, and translate the knowledge and skills into a defined action plan for themselves and their agencies. The training will help participants strengthen their knowledge of the obstacles LGBTQ people experience in seeking victim services and explore how best to overcome or alleviate these obstacles. At the conclusion of the training, it is expected that victim service providers and allied professionals will be better able to serve LGBTQ victims of crime more effectively.
  • Responding to Transgender Victims of Sexual Assault Developed by OVC, this online guide was designed to help educate those who respond to sexual assault victims about what it means to be transgender and how to provide these victims with appropriate, accessible care. The guide presents a wide array of information in a user-friendly electronic format that allows practitioners to pick and choose the information that is most useful to them, from basic information about the transgender experience to specific guidance for sexual assault service providers and advocates, law enforcement officers, medical and mental health care providers, and support group facilitators. It includes practical tools to promote understanding and support of transgender victims, such as preferred language terms and transgender 101.
  • The Homeless LGBT Experience (Episode 1) describes the importance of being "present" for youth and helping youth see their own strengths and resources. In it, youth talk about being rejected by their families because of their LGBTQ identity and having to leave home as a result.
  • Confronting Hate Speech and Homophobia (Episode 2) gives tips on how to create a safe and welcoming space for LGBTQ youth, including how to handle hate speech.
  • Special Risks: Helping Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Trafficked Boys Many LGBT young people run away because their families disapprove of their sexual identity, and such familial conflict is one of the common risk factors for sex trafficking.
  • Why It Matters: Rethinking Victim Assistance for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Victims of Hate Violence and Intimate Partner Violence (Mar 2010) This report describes widespread gaps in victim services for LGBTQ victims of crime and recommends steps to improve both the services and their accessibility.
  • Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth (2015) This report outlines the health risks LGBTQ youth face, including higher rates of depression and violence than their peers.

Victims with Disabilities

  • Victims with Disabilities - Collaborative, Multidisciplinary First Response (2009) This resource provides techniques for first responders called to help crime victims who have disabilities. DVD and trainer's guide included.
  • Supporting Crime Victims with Disabilities This 3-day training offered by OVC TTAC is designed for victim service providers, advocates for people with disabilities, self-advocates, and allied professionals. Using case studies and small group discussions, participants examine the prevalence of crime against people with disabilities, perceptions of the criminal justice system, tenets of the disabilities movement, and the impact of disabilities on daily life. Through collaborative activities you will identify ways the various agencies, organizations, and systems can work together to better serve crime victims with disabilities.
  • Crime Victims with Developmental Disabilities (2001) Criminal Justice and Behavior. Vol. 28 No. 6 655-694. The author offers several conceptual models to explain differential victimization risk, including routine activities theory, dependency-stress model, cultural stereotyping, and victim-learned compliance. This article summarizes the research evidence on crimes against children and adults with developmental disabilities. It is divided into four sections. The first section describes the nature and extent of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities. The second reviews the literature onrisk factors associated with victimization. The third discusses the manner in which justice agencies respond to these crimes. The final section enumerates what research and policy initiatives might address the problem.
  • "Laws in Your State" This chart summarizes mandatory reporters by state for elders and those with a disability.

Native American Communities