Human Trafficking vs. Smuggling
- An Empirical Analysis of the Intersection of Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in the United States A National Institute of Justice-funded study examined the link between human trafficking and organized crime based on an analysis of recent federally prosecuted cases.
- The Typology of Modern Slavery: Defining Sex and Labor Trafficking The Polaris research team analyzed the National Human Trafficking Hotline data and developed a classification system that identifies 25 types of human trafficking in the United States, with its own business model, trafficker profiles, recruitment strategies, victim profiles, and methods of control that facilitate human trafficking.
- Human Trafficking and Smuggling (2013): This U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement fact sheet explains the differences between human trafficking and smuggling.
- National Human Trafficking Hotline (NHTRC) is a national, toll free hotline available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC is not a law enforcement or immigration authority, and it is operated by a nongovernmental organization funded by the Federal Government. This hotline, from Polaris, can be reached at 1–888–373–7888.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has offices around the world and can be contacted around the clock, every day of the year. On the Web site, see When to Contact the FBI for details on areas of responsibility. You may also submit a tip online to the FBI at https://tips.fbi.gov/, or call your local FBI office.
- Homeland Security Investigations Tip Line provides a means for individuals across the world to report suspicious criminal activity to the ICE Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) Tip Line 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Highly trained specialists take reports from both the public and law enforcement agencies on more than 400 laws enforced by ICE HSI. Call 1–866–DHS–2–ICE, or submit a tip online at www.ice.gov/tips. The Tip Line is accessible internationally by calling 1–802–872–6199.
- National Center for Missing & Exploited Children ® (NCMEC) Call Center operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you have information about a missing child or suspected child sexual exploitation, report it to 1–800–THE-LOST or http://www.cybertipline.com/.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division at 1–866–4USWAGE (1–866–487–9243) handles cases in which labor exploitation may be present but does not rise to the threshold of trafficking.
- U.S. Department of Labor OIG Hotline at 1–202–693–6999 or 1–800–347–3756, email@example.com, or www.oig.dol.gov/hotlinemain.htm, operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Report allegations of trafficking committed through fraud in DOL programs, including, but not limited to, the H-1B, H-2A, H-2B, and PERM visa programs. When filing an OIG Hotline complaint, it is not necessary to provide names or any other identifying information.
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) at 1–800–669–4000 from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. (eastern) provides information about how workers, including trafficking victims, can file a charge of employment discrimination.
Reports and Studies
- Non-Criminalization of Juvenile Sex Trafficking Victims
Policy paper advocating for noncriminalization of juvenile sex trafficking victims.
- JuST Response State System Mapping Report (2015)
Report provides a review of current statutes, systems, and service responses to juvenile sex trafficking. The report gives an overview of state response examples that promote effective responses.
- After Rescue: Evaluation of Strategies to Stabilize and Integrate Adult Survivors of Human Trafficking to the United States (2016) This report examines case management services funded by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Program of the Office for Refugee Resettlement under the Per Capita Reimbursement Contract administered by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. This program examined comprehensive case management services from 2006 to 2011 for foreign-born adult survivors of trafficking for forced labor, domestic servitude, or sexual exploitation.
- Child Sex Trafficking in America: A Guide for Parents and Guardians. This simple fact sheet, from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, is targeted to parents to raise awareness of potential indicators and warning signs of sex trafficking.
- Understanding the Organization, Operation, and Victimization Process of Labor Trafficking in the United States: An Urban Institute research report; one of the few specific to labor trafficking.
- Trafficking In Persons Report (2001–present) The annual U.S. Department of State's Trafficking in Persons Report is the most comprehensive worldwide report on the efforts of governments to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons.
- Ending Modern-Day Slavery: Using Research to Inform U.S. Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts (2013) This overview, based on several National Institute of Justice (NIJ) studies, examines the challenges facing the criminal justice system when combating human trafficking.
- Colorado Project to Comprehensively Combat Human Trafficking – Colorado Action Plan This is an initiative of the Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), which aims to develop sustainable efforts to end human trafficking with the essential input of those working on the ground. This action plan is designed to guide Colorado to more effectively respond to human trafficking. The plan was developed with input from stakeholders around the state and informed by the Colorado Project to Comprehensively Combat Human Trafficking (Colorado Project), 2010–2013.
- Technology and Human Trafficking: The Rise of Mobile and the Diffusion of Technology-Facilitated Trafficking (2012) In this report, researchers at the University of Southern California's Annenberg Center on Communication Leadership & Policy (CCLP) reveal how those involved in human trafficking quickly adapted to the 21st century global landscape. The precise role that digital technologies play in human trafficking remains unclear; however, and a closer examination of the phenomenon is vital to identifying and responding to new threats and opportunities.
- Looking for a Hidden Population: Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego County (2012)This is a study of migrant laborers in San Diego County funded by NIJ. The study used respondent-driven sampling to produce statistical estimates of labor trafficking in the area. The study found that labor trafficking victimization appears rampant among unauthorized Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in the county and estimates more than 30 percent of this target population are labor trafficking victims.
- Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases (2012) This research discusses the challenges in identifying and investigating difficult cases and proposes strategies to overcome the barriers to investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases in the United States.
- Finding Victims of Human Trafficking (2008) This 2008 study by the National Opinion Research Center responds to a congressional mandate and examines human trafficking experiences among a random sample of 60 counties across the United States. The findings suggest that local awareness levels and enforcement approaches are associated with whether or not sites had state trafficking statutes.
- Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking (2008) This report, funded by the Department of Justice's (DOJ) National Institute of Justice, was released by the Institute on Race and Justice at Northeastern University in 2008. It addresses four main perceptions of trafficking held by law enforcement, what preparations agencies made to address the problem, the frequency in which law enforcement identifies and investigates cases of human trafficking, the characteristics of those cases investigated by law enforcement, and the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases.
- Invisible Chains: Psychological Coercion of Human Trafficking Victims (2006) It is easy to comprehend slavery with chains. Many people have difficulty understanding how psychological means are used to manipulate other people. This paper attempts to show how psychological coercion can be as effective as physical violence in exerting control over a person.
- Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress (Jan 2015) The Congressional Research Service provides a review of current federal responses to child sex trafficking. This report discusses the need for additional resources in the child welfare response and in addressing gaps when trafficking victims enter the juvenile justice system as criminals.