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Resources: 5.2 Taking a Proactive Approach

Law Enforcement Specific Tools

  • Guidance on Recognizing Activity that May be Associated with Smuggling and Human Trafficking This guidance, developed by the U.S. Department of the Treasury FinCEN, identifies financial transactions that may relate to smuggling and trafficking investigations.
  • Law Enforcement's Role in Supporting Victims' Needs Through Pretrial Justice Reform (2015) 
    This paper, from the International Association of Chiefs of Police, highlights the detention of a defendant during an investigation as a promising practice to ensure victim safety and a stronger case.
  • The Civil Rights Unit & Office for Victim Assistance developed a unique protocol for agents working with victim specialists during trafficking investigations. The protocol is not for the public, and cannot be provided to anyone other than law enforcement. Please contact the Civil Rights Unit & Office for Victim Assistance for additional information.
  • Ohio Human Trafficking Task Force Screening Tool This document provides each state agency’s identified training officer(s) with a simple, straightforward and easy to adapt guide to train staff on how to administer the standardized screening tool for identifying victims. The purpose of the tool is to identify potential victims of human trafficking for referral to appropriate victim services. The screening questions, suggestions, and indicators are not exhaustive or cumulative in nature, and a positive response to these questions may result in a referral to an external organization for a more comprehensive assessment.
  • Orange County Human Trafficking Investigations Flow Chart (2009) Provided by the Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force, this resource provides a visual representation of how tips are followed up and investigated in Orange County, California.
  • Tips for Identifying the Crime of Human Trafficking. This U.S. Department of Health and Human Services document was developed in 2008 as part of the Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Tool Kits and focuses on indicators of the crime.
  • Tips for Identifying and Interacting with Victims of Human Trafficking This U.S. Department of Health and Human Services document was developed in 2008 as part of the Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Tool Kits and focuses on victim identification and response.
  • Youth Victims of Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in Clark County Juvenile Court: Implementing an Identification and Diversion Process (2011) This resource was published by the Division of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Portland State University.  It summarizes an intervention by the Clark County Juvenile Court in Vancouver, Washington, to identify and divert youth victims of DMST from juvenile detention to advocacy and appropriate community resources.
  • First Aid Kit for Use by Law Enforcement in Addressing Human Trafficking Developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the First Aid Kit is not intended as a substitute for in-depth, specialized response to human trafficking, but is offered as a tool to help persons who may come into contact with trafficked persons, to take the vital first steps necessary to protect victims and catch the criminals involved. In addition to English, the First Aid Kit is available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish.
  • The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation With funding from the DOJ’s Office on Violence Against Women, the International Association of Chiefs of Police created this guidebook in 2006 for law enforcement on the crime of human trafficking. It covers the federal law, tools for identification, investigation and response, and resources for victim assistance.
  • Enhancing Law Enforcement Response to Victims A joint effort by the Office for Victims of Crime and the International Association of Chiefs of Police, this package includes a 21st Century Strategy that details the benefits, challenges, and methods of enhancing local and state law enforcement response to victims of crime, as well as an Implementation Guide, a Resource Took Kit and a Training Supplemental.
  • First Response to Victims of Crime Guidebook (2008) Developed by the Office for Victims of Crime and the National Sheriff’s Association, this guidebook provides guidelines for response to a variety of victim populations and crimes, including human trafficking.
  • The Mindset of a Human Trafficking Victim Created as part of the Department of Health and Human Service’s Campaign to Rescue and Restore Campaign Toolkit, this resource for law enforcement provides guidance on how victims of human trafficking may see themselves and their situations.
  • POST Guidelines for Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking (2014) Developed by the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, this tool was designed to provide law enforcement with a systematic process for conducting a human trafficking investigation.
  • Information for Law Enforcement Officials: Immigration Relief for Victims of Human Trafficking and Other Crimes This two-page fact sheet answers frequently asked questions for law enforcement officials on the immigration benefits available to victims of human trafficking and other serious crimes through USCIS. The sheet covers the U and T visas, law enforcement declarations and certifications, and victim support in investigations.
  • Victim Assistance Program Brochure: Information for Victims of Human Trafficking (2010) This ICE pamphlet for potential victims of human trafficking provides indicators to help victims self-identify and explains victims’ legal rights and immigration options, including Continued Presence and the T visa, as well as other forms of available assistance.
  • HHS Toolkits for Law Enforcement Published by the Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children & Families, these toolkits provide background information and guidance for law enforcement officers to identify and communicate with victims of human trafficking.

Reports & Studies

Sample Law Enforcement Protocols


  • Law Enforcement Trafficking Testing Area This training module was developed to assist law enforcement agencies in carrying out their responsibilities as outlined in DoDI 2200.01, Combating Trafficking in Persons. The module reviews general TIP awareness training, identifies the crime of TIP and actions to take, and provides scenarios for an appropriate response. This training will be mandatory for law enforcement and investigative agency personnel.
  • DHS Blue Campaign Law Enforcement Training Videos This is a DHS Web-based human trafficking training course that teaches law enforcement officers how to recognize human trafficking encountered during routine duties, how to protect victims, and how to initiate human trafficking investigations.